les Cristalleries Daum
les Cristalleries Daum
As a result of the war of 1870, Jean Daum (1825 – 1885), a notary at Bitche, sells its study and opted for France. It installs to Nancy in 1876 and ready, the same year, of the money on several occasions in April and Bertrand, owner of the glassware St Catherine of Nancy, a factory that produces the flask production and of the regular gobeleterie. The company does not find its financial equilibrium and Daum is forced to redeem: there is investing 50,000 francs the March 23, 1878 and becomes leader of a company of 150 workers, in an area which he knows nothing.
1878, There are associated his son Auguste, but, it does not know the first success of the enterprise. To his death, 1885, Auguste supports only the direction of the glassware before being joined, in 1887, by his brother Antonã n (Jean Antonin Daum, born in Bitche 1864 † Nancy 1930), just graduated from the Central School of arts and manufactures.
Before the poor financial health of the glassware, Auguste, who followed a trained lawyer, is obliged to take the head, after that it has been acquired for the salvage of the bankruptcy. Antonin begun by beautifying the services of common tables. Familiar by the techniques of the glass by his training, he oriented production toward the artistic creation. The two brothers are preparing, between 1889 and 1891, the creation of a department artistic which is entrusted to Antonin. Auguste gave him all the ways to work to follow the trench dug by Emile Galle in the glassware Art Nouveau.
Antonin begins with a few simple models to continue quickly with the engraving to the acid, and then, in passing on models using the techniques of engraving at the wheel, glasses to two or three layers. From 1890 to 1914, it created no less than three thousand references.
Jacques Grüber is the first artist of the glassware. Recruited in 1893, he has been entrusted with the creation of parts in order to be included in the universal exhibition of Chicago in 1893. This was the first great success which catapulted Daum in the closed circle of industries of s. The Daum y earn participation in the exhibition of Nancy in 1894. Then there was the exhibitions of Lyon (1894), Bordeaux (1895) and Brussels (1895 and 1897), during which they receive distinctions.
A school for drawing is created, in 1897, to the inside of the enterprise which form as well its own designers and engravers.
Henri Berge y is master decorator, it is the second artist of the company. It will be at its sides Emile Writz from 1898.
The consecration of the adventure comes when the first grand prize for the art glass of the Universal Exhibition of 1900 is awarded to Daum and Galle. Daum y presents the parts carefully prepared: the decor interlayer (patent of 1899), luminaires which become a specialty.
In 1904, Almaric Walter y developed blocks of glass, it will remain among Daum up in 19151.
In 1901, the statutes of the School of Nancy are officially posed. Emile Galle is the man at the origin of this grouping and becomes president. Antonin is vice-president. Antonin is also one of the personalities of the chamber of commerce of Nancy. It plays an important role in 1909 at the international exhibition of the East of France which marks the end of the School of Nancy. Auguste dies 1909, Antonin is active until his death in 1930, but shared the responsibilities with the son of Auguste: Jean, Henri and Paul.
John dies in 1916, Henri is managing as his father. Paul is a graduate of the Institute of physics and chemistry of Nancy, it will gradually place of Antonin. The Daum provide after 1918, the adaptation of the business to new production conditions, anxious to maintain qualities, technical and aesthetic orientations more than utilities.
The company continues to participate in major exhibitions: Barcelona 1923, international exhibition of art deco in Paris in 1925, colonial Exhibition in Paris in 1931.
In 1920, Paul directs the production toward the Art deco before the loss of the public’s interest in the Art Nouveau. The request is important and the thriving business. It opens a second cristallerie Belle-Étoile to Croismare, in 1925, of which Paul is the director. It provides of the glassware white, ball, of the fantasy signed Lorrain. Pierre Davesn created models from 1928. The economic crisis of the 1930Belle-Étoile key which is closed in 1934. A few large orders allow the company to continue its production: in 1935, the transatlantic Company command 90 000 parts in glass and crystal for the ocean liner Normandie.
After the Second World War, the crystal takes a prominent place, under the direction of Henri and Michel Daum. The eldest of the grandchildren of Antonã n, Antoine Sebastien Froissart (1920-1971), engineer of the Ecole Centrale Paris, developed the manufacture of a crystal particularly transparent and glossy. This new crystal favors the creation of parts to the forms thick and flexible, and in the luminous aspect. Jacques, grandson of Augustus, brought a breath again in 1965 by appealing to the contemporary creators. Cesar spent several weeks to Nancy and works on new farms in the area.
In 1976, Pierre de Cherisey, grandson of Antonã n, is the last president of the Daum family at the head of the company (previously in 1990).
In 1990, Orcofi Holdings acquires la Cristalleries Daum.
Acquired majority in 2000 by Axa Private Equity and the Agricultural Credit and the goldsmith Tetard 1860 is struggling with financial worries, the cristallerie removing the balance sheet in 2003 prior to reconstitute the company is taken over by the financial Algerian-french Prosper Amouyal via its financial holding company Saint-Germain in May 2009.